First aid is immediate action, which you can use to save lives. It is given before arrival of doctors. Can handle almost anyone. Consider the most important basic skills which should be taken by everyone.
10. The algorithm first aid
All actions are useless, you need to do things a certain algorithm. First you need to make sure that you do not suffer during the rescue of another person. Then ensure the safety of the victim (for example, remove it from the car involved in the accident). Check to see if he reacts to the light, make sure that there is breathing and pulse. Then call rescuers, doctors and just give the man first aid. Before the arrival of specialists try to provide him with maximum comfort.
To restore the natural ventilation of human lungs, it is possible to carry out artificial respiration. It is made in different ways. The most effective techniques – mouth-to-nose and mouth-to-mouth. Before the procedure you will need to remove from the mouth of the victim blood, mucus and everything that hinders the flow of air into the respiratory tract. After the first-aid chest shall begin to climb.
8. Chest compressions
Such impacts may be required in cases where a person has no pulse. In the process of implementation of the compressed cardiac muscles between the spinal column and the sternum. This helps to keep the blood circulation of the victim whose heart has stopped. Such an effect cannot be the case if the person has a pulse.
The victim should be transferred on a hard and flat surface. Then find the end of the sternum, its a very small part. It's called the xiphoid process. Then you will need to find the compression point: measure from the xiphoid process from 20 to 40 mm up. This place will need to put the base of the palm. Another hand position on top of the first, connect fingers. Aftershocks should be rhythmic: move your hand vertically, with the utmost care, but pretty much.
7. The Heimlich Maneuver
When fall into the trachea foreign body, particles of food, it is partially or completely clogged, and the person begins to experience asthma attacks. The Heimlich maneuver allows you to clear the airway. Have to get up behind a person, clasp his hands and to connect them on his chest, stepping back a few inches from the umbilical region. Then begin to sharply bend the limbs at the elbows and pushing on the abdomen. Press until the until the airway will be released.
6. Help with bleeding
The bleeding may be arterial, venous or capillary. If it is arterial, you will need to clamp the artery with a fist or fingers. If bleeding is venous, use a compression bandage. Put on the wound with gauze and place it on a clean towel or cotton wool (in several layers). Then you will need all tightly bandaged. If the bleeding is capillary, use a sterile dressing.
5. Aid for fractures
The fracture is closed, open. If the fracture is open, in some cases, visible bone fragments. To provide first aid, you will first need to stop the bleeding (if any). Then try to see if we can move the person before arrival of doctors. When damaged, the spine to change the position of the victim is strictly prohibited. Fix the joints that are above and below the damage. You should then splint. It can be made from scrap materials.
4. Aid for burns
First you need to protect the victim from further exposure to the damaging factor (hot water, flame and so on). Then should release the burnt spot from the clothing and cover it with a vodka or a mixture of water and alcohol. You should not treat the affected area greasy creams or products based on oils: they can help to alleviate the condition of the victim will not work. Then treat the burnt spot with cold water and cover the wound. The victim will have to drink warm salty liquid.
3. Aid for fainting
Need to be convenient to put the man to undress him, so it did not hurt him. If the victim is indoors, wide open doors and Windows to the room did the maximum amount of fresh air. Moisten the forehead and cheeks of a man with cold water, give him to smell liquid ammonia. If he doesn't come in a few minutes, immediately call the doctors.
2. Drowning and sunstroke
When drowning you will need to move the person to dry land. When he gets there, put his belly on his knee. The man must be head down. Then you will need to take out of his mouth algae, slime. If the person is not breathing, has no pulse, immediately do chest compressions, artificial respiration.
If a man happens sunstroke, you will need to transfer it in a cool and well-ventilated place. Then keep him, take his clothes off. Dampen a towel with cold water, put it on the neck and head of the victim. Give him to smell liquid ammonia. If necessary, it will be possible to carry out artificial respiration. The victim will need to give plenty of slightly salted cold water.
1. Hypothermia and frostbite
When hypothermia will need to wrap up the victim with something warm or bring (having) him in a warm room. Preobladayuschee a person cannot be rubbed: his body needs to warm itself. Give him food, warm drink.
Frostbite can occur as a result of hypothermia. Its symptoms – loss of sensation, numbness, tingling, feeling cold. The person with frostbite will need to be placed in heat. Damaged areas should not be rubbed: so you can only make the situation worse. Frostbitten skin will need to wrap something warm.