In 1932 the USSR committed atrocities, mass starvation. Food was scarce in the Urals, the Volga region, Siberia, Kazakh SSR. But of all of the affected regions and republics were allocated to the Ukrainian SSR. Too many people died there from starvation. Ukraine is on the word "Holodomor," which means the deliberate extermination of hunger.
Causes of the Holodomor was a lot. The most important is collectivization. Rich peasants were dispossessed, confiscated their cattle and grain. However, in the collective farms fared no better. People worked, but the bread was only seen in a dream. All the grain handed over to the state. It was a scary time. It was not so many years since then, it seems that historians know all about this period. But the debate among them continues. What events really occurred and which were created artificially, it is unlikely someone will be able to learn. Now it is nothing more than subjective opinion. But still try to understand what happened in those days in the USSR. Below is a list of 10 facts about the Holodomor of 1932-33.
10. The first mention in the press
Oddly enough, information about the famine was first published in the English edition. A journalist from England traveled to the Ukrainian SSR, he was struck by how people live. Mayrig in his article mentioned about the famine, he said, and the mass deaths of peasants. After its publication, foreign journalists were forbidden to travel freely in the USSR. Under the special ban was those areas where famine was raging. However, this was not the only mention of the Holodomor in the press. Soon there were such articles in American Newspapers.
9. Natural fines
The peasants had to hand over to the state grain. Give them a plan. But the authorities somehow believed that the peasants hide their grain from. In fact, people gave their last, they just had no more to take. Then applied punitive measures. Took products, cattle, all that was from the peasants. And the debt did not decrease, the peasant owed the state. The people who managed to survive, with a shudder, recalled the time. Said collectors did not disdain anything, took away even the old products. In addition, the collectors not only deprive people of food they beat them, abused.
The views of historians and politicians diverge. Some of them believe that the famine was caused in order to destroy the Ukrainian people. Others say about the tragedy of the Soviet Union. In 2006, the Verkhovna Rada recognized the Holodomor was genocide. The government of the Russian Federation has a different opinion. Still, many historians are inclined to believe that the Armenian genocide can be considered. As in other republics and regions from the lack of food also killed many people, but nobody says that they are specially starved. Ukrainians believe that the Holodomor caused a strong impact on demography.
7. The geography of hunger
They are suffering from hunger not only in Ukraine. The inhabitants of Siberia, the Volga region, the Urals, Kazakhstan also became victims of food shortages. Most people in Ukraine were killed in Kyiv, Kharkiv, Dnipropetrovsk, Poltava region. Among all the victims 81% Ukrainians and the rest Russians, poles, Jews, Bulgarians. Historians attribute this to the fact that the villages are dying, more people in the city they were given ration cards. In addition, there was an opportunity though as-that to earn.
6. Where there was no famine?
Inflated plans for grain storage at the time advanced by 25 thousands of farms. It was in 1932. But among them was 1,5 thousand "lucky ones" who managed to implement this plan. They have, at least, did not take vegetables, fruits. People somehow could survive. Such farms were in each area. The chairmen of collective farms often tried to reduce the plan, but lengthy discussions were usually not result. Very often the failure to adopt such a plan, chairmen were removed from office or even declared enemies of the people.
5. The number of victims
There is still no consensus about the number of victims. This figure ranges from 1.8 million to 10 million people. Institute of demography of Ukraine refers to the number of 3.9 million. According to scientists, the number of victims very often overstate policy. Some sources indicate 12 million. Why scientists recommend to check the accuracy of the data before throwing rhetoric. By the way, in the Soviet Union died from hunger and 8.7 million people. And Ukraine on indicators of relative losses ranked second, first place in Kazakhstan. These metrics are calculated by replaying the demographic dynamics. Scientists have calculated what the number would be if it were not for the famine and compared it with the real numbers.
During the reign of the Soviet government was a popular honor roll, they were also called "red boards". But if the country knows its heroes, it needs to know and those who pull it back. So I think the majority close to the government. There were "black Board" on which wrote the name of the village, the offense and repressive measures. Farm workers, whose name appeared on this Board, did not burn from shame. No, it was much worse. Those who have not fulfilled the plan, I lost everything. Authorities have used the natural fines was introduced a lot of different punitive measures, the chairs were removed, the whole village was evicted, people were killed.
3. Official recognition
For the first time about the Holodomor heard in 1978. Source – the works of Ukrainian emigrants who went to America. But the Soviet authorities denied it. Historians were also forbidden to speak about this period. The only thing you could say is the difficulty to obtain food. Only in 1987, the USSR recognized that in 1932 to 1933, throughout the Union there were many hungry people, and people really were dying of hunger. And in 1990 he published the book about this difficult time. Though its circulation was small, only 2, 5 thousand copies.
2. The law of five spikelets
It seemed that it couldn't get worse, but in 1932, at the suggestion of Stalin introduced a new law. The law "on five ears" called the law on the protection of property of state enterprises and collective farms. Punished all who dared to encroach on what is owned by the state. Criminals sentenced to death or imprisonment. Punish not only those who steal in large amounts. Literally because of a few ears of grain could shoot. The peasants, who in the harvesting of grain, hid a handful in his pocket to feed a hungry child, imprisoned, property was taken. Only for the first year condemned about 150 thousand people.
The most terrible phenomenon in that period was cannibalism. People could not withstand the hunger, they ate the dead children and adults. Stealing corpses in the cemetery. There were a lot of horrific cases. The woman went into the city, leaving three small children, the youngest of them was 3, the oldest 9. Older brother and sister killed the younger sister and just threw it at the corpse. Parents killed children, justifying the fact that they still died from starvation. Nowhere before had there been so many recorded cases of cannibalism. The health workers of the villages was entrusted with the mission: to kill the cannibals. The doctors went to the homes of cannibals with poisoned food. Such people were punished and even shot.