After mass protests of feminists, the women decided to come out of the shadows and show the world their talents. Many of them can not only cook soup Yes, raise children, and actively use the knowledge and skills for the benefit of mankind. Women have well developed imaginative and emotional way of thinking that allows them to compensate in the scientific activities of the points that have not developed men. Now, when a woman in politics, science and management is no longer nonsense, we can observe a number of interesting and useful discoveries.
We will look at 10 famous women who have achieved success in academic career and introduced the world to their innovations and inventions, thereby affecting the technological progress of the world. Below are not so many modern scholars, on their way there is no financial, social and political challenges, how many women inventors of the past centuries, who were not afraid to change the world order.
10. Dorothy Crowfoot-Hodgkin
Form of biological molecules determines their future functions. First of all it concerns proteins, so identifying the three-dimensional structure of biopolymers (popular now 3D) is a critical challenge of biochemistry. Doctor and biochemist Dorothy Hodgkin took the existing in the early 20th century the technique of x-ray crystallography, and modified it for the structural analysis of biomolecules. Dorothy has conducted an analysis of vitamin B12 and penicillin, was able to establish the structure of insulin. In 1964 for his achievements was awarded the Nobel prize. Still the structure of proteins experimentally determined in 3D around the world.
9. Irene Joliot-Curie
Woman scientist from France was nominated for the Nobel prize, for achievements in the field of chemistry. Irene was able to obtain new radioactive elements, and working together with her husband Frederic Joliot invented the radiation produced by artificial means. By the way, Irene is the eldest daughter of a distinguished female scientist Marie Curie. She was also awarded many honorary awards from the famous research institutes and communities.
8. Maria Goeppert-Mayer
Renowned theoretical physicist could be a woman that proved American of German origin. Maria theorized shell structure of the nucleus of an atom made a significant contribution to the building of nuclear power, and even was nominated in 1963 for the Nobel prize in physics.
7. Rosalind Franklin
The role of this woman in science, many researchers believe the key to the 20th century. However, her contributions were denigrated for many decades (in part, this contributed to early retirement from academic life due to cancer). The Nobel Committee refused to grant the award to a talented woman who first performed x-ray diffraction study of deoxyribonucleic acid. Thanks Rosalind, scientists were able to visualize the structure of DNA – the double helix.
6. Lisa Meitner
This famous woman scientist stands at the cradle of the invention of nuclear weapons. It was split a uranium nucleus apart and noted the subsequent chain reactions, accompanied by release of energy. Meitner realized that the possibility of creating very dangerous weapons can destroy the world, so, being a pacifist, refused from the invention of the "bomb". By the way, Lisa was a Professor at the University in Berlin and at that time in such a position she simply could not qualify. A female researcher did not give the deserved for the discovery of nuclear fission, the Nobel prize – it got the man of her team Otto Hahn. Not so long ago, scientific name called a new chemical element in the periodic table (materi) and was given room 109.
5. Ada Lovelace
Born Byron (daughter of the famous Lord Byron) found themselves on the research field. She was consulting scientist Charles Babbage's who designed a mechanical computer, helping him to create the first program to calculate. Hell in the 40-ies of the 19th century developed a special algorithm, which allows the device to help people with math and calculations. Inherited from his father a tendency to romanticize what is happening, Lovelace is expected that computers will be able to serve mankind and fundamentally change the lives of many that, in fact, we are now witnessing. So-called female scientist the world's first programmer.
4. Maria Sklodowska-Curie
Known to all from school woman scientist worked in tandem with her husband Pierre, which allowed family synergistic pair to make significant progress in the study of radiation. Maria has several areas of research activities – chemist, physicist, teacher. She became the first in the world woman that was able to win the Nobel prize (and she has a whopping 2). Scientists have discovered such useful chemical elements radium and polonium, and studied their structure, nature, and possible connections. Maria also examined the effects of irradiation on malignant tumors.
3. Gertrude B. Elion
In collaboration with several men selfless Gertrude studied the properties of several chemicals that contributed to the creation of effective medicines. It was to her the world owes preparations from leukemia (blood cancer), malaria, and herpes, but previously these diseases were incurable. Gertrude found a cure that can stop the growth and development of malignant cells in 1950 and called it the Mercaptopurine. For the principles of conservative treatment of it in 1988 he received the Nobel prize.
2. Barbara McClintock
An academic in the field of genetic research as early as 1948, discovered the movement of genes, and received the Nobel prize at the age of 81 years, becoming the third female winner. Barbara studied the effects of x-irradiation on chromosome set of the corn, finding that genetic structure can move. She revealed that mobile genes can also change the operation of adjoining, which led to mutations. It was contrary to the postulates of the chromosome theory, was developed by male colleagues. However, McClintock did not give up and another 6 years conducted experiments, publishing the results. The woman taught his theory to citaloram from South America, which eventually allowed to isolate the genetic structure. She also described the telomeres (explain cell division and biological aging) and ring chromosomes (reveal the nature of genetic diseases).
1. Mary Anning
Academic grew up in a family of a carpenter and didn't go for the expected path of the secular lady. The woman was at the forefront of the field of paleontology, for which risked health, life and relationships in society. She found remains of prehistoric animals and dinosaurs in a time when the importance of such discoveries, the scientific world was not aware of. The first complete skeleton (it was an ichthyosaurus) she and her brother found at the age of 12 years, after which he decided to devote himself to the search of the remains. Mary for life managed to raise the full skeletons of a pterosaur and plesiosaur, and contemporaries used the results of its labours, without allowing the official scientific circles. Research Anning was not recognized until the late 19th century.
Brave women overcame the conventions of society and were able to serve humanity by making a significant contribution to chemistry, physics, information technology, medicine and history.