- 1. Legends about the curse of the pyramids
- 2. The pyramids were not built by slaves
- 3. The builders of the pyramids used the "lever principle" and the number "PI"
- 4. The builders of the pyramids knew astronomy
- 5. Energy is the essence of the pyramids
- 6. Theory of the origin of the pyramids and their age
- 7. Features of the masonry blocks and other architectural techniques
- 8. The first Egyptian pyramid
- 9. The biggest pyramid
- 10. Where are the tombs of the Egyptian pharaohs
Tell me honestly, where you are mandatory, if you fall (or just as a tourist) to Egypt? Of course, in Giza! Where majestically over the Sands that hide the remains of a great ancient civilization, the huge pyramid, perfect, mysterious and mystical (the benefit that Giza is located right on the outskirts of the capital of Egypt – Cairo, so getting there is not difficult). You know that the 3rd biggest Egyptian pyramids (Cheops, Chephren and mycerinus) – the only one of the seven ancient wonders of the world, which has survived to our days?
A long time ago is not the world nor the gardens of Babylon or the lighthouse of Alexandria or the colossus of Rhodes, in the dust of the destroyed temple of Artemis at Ephesus and the tomb of king Mausolus of Halicarnassus, sunk for centuries, the Golden statue of Zeus at Olympia and the pyramids of Giza is the oldest of all these wonders of the world – still cast a huge shadow on the desert, and will stand in the same place many, many centuries.
By the way, the pyramids in Egypt, of course, is not 3, a total of about 140, – in addition to Giza, they are located in Saqqara, the Dahkur, Madame and Abusive, all on the West Bank of the Nile where the sun sets, and where, according to the beliefs of the ancient Egyptians, therefore, is the realm of the dead. How the Egyptians managed to build these impressive structures, if, even with our modern technology, make it not so easy? You've made such a huge effort? What practical value are these multi-ton, inspiring respect and even reverence, geometrically-perfect masterpieces? So far scientists have not found definitive answers to these questions.
We offer you 10 most interesting facts about the Egyptian pyramids and related mysteries.
10. Where are the tombs of the Egyptian pharaohs
For a long time it was considered axiomatic that the pyramids are monumental tombs of Egyptian pharaohs, which was to be their home after death (or a kind of "launching pad" to jump to another world – was common version, that the inside of the pyramids and doing a vertical shaft). In fact, after opening quite a large number of pyramids (including pyramid of Khufu) was not detected in any of the bodies (mummies) of the pharaohs, no household goods and expensive things, which were to be used in the afterlife. Most of the pyramids were empty.
Of course, some scientists immediately offered this perfectly logical explanation, just that the pyramid was a long time ago (in ancient times) is robbed. (But then the question arises, how did this happen? Because some of them were hardly found only recently, and only with the help of special modern equipment). But a huge number of tombs of the pharaohs and their relatives (with well-preserved mummies) were found by archaeologists in the valley of the Kings, located near the ancient city of Thebes (now Luxor). By the way, one of the most famous graves discovered here was the tomb of young Pharaoh Tutankhamun. What is the point of the pyramid?..
9. The biggest pyramid
The great pyramid of Cheops (Khufu) was built around 2600 BCE, also called the great pyramid of Giza. Initially it has reached the height 146,6 meters, but because of the destruction veneer tops it decreased to 138,8 m (in any case, is approximately 50 floors of our modern buildings, which is very impressive). Almost 4 millennia (up until in 1311 in England, was built the Cathedral of the virgin Mary in Lincoln) the pyramid of Cheops was the tallest structure in the world. Square its base occupies about 5 hectares, the approximate weight of more than 6 million tons.
During the construction of the pyramids were made so smooth Foundation that her face is different from each other a maximum of 5 cm (length of 250 meters at the base of each!). 2.3 million stone blocks that comprise the pyramid, weighing from 2 to 30 (and sometimes up to 50) tons, perfectly adjusted to each other.
The faces of the pyramid is focused strictly on the four sides (front side "looks" to the North with a very minor error that is associated with the fact that more than 4.5 thousand years, the North pole of the Earth slightly shifted). The crypt of the pyramid of Cheops could easily accommodate two medium-sized two-bedroom apartments.
8. The first Egyptian pyramid
The oldest Egyptian pyramid is the pyramid of the Pharaoh Djoser, built around 2700 BC, In contrast to the great pyramids, it has a somewhat different form – 6 trapezoids, gradually decreasing in size, put one on another (with a total height of 62 meters). The pyramid of Djoser at Saqqara (and she's survived much worse than the Giza pyramids).
Architect of the first pyramid is called Imhotep – ancient Egyptian scientist, engineer and doctor. Believe that he invented this form for tombs of the pharaohs and also the way of masonry of hewn stones, which was used for the construction of all other pyramids.
7. Features of the masonry blocks and other architectural techniques
For many scientists the most important mystery of the Egyptian pyramids is the way they are built (given the fact that it happened in those days, when she didn't even iron tools). Huge blocks of stone, allegedly, cut in the quarries copper chisels (there was a version that they really did by using wooden stakes, razbuhavshie from pouring water, but denied it).
How these multi-ton blocks would then be delivered to the construction site, is still not fully understood (version: rolled on wooden rollers, and then the barges were transported on the Nile). Processing and grinding were carried out on the "construction site". Then the blocks were dragged on increasing the height of the pyramid is also a great mystery (version: poured a long earthen "ramp" and it dragged the stone "bricks" to the top, or this "ramp" was coiled around the already built tiers of the pyramid).
Another point: how to keep the blocks during transportation if they are no traces of fastenings or technical holes? And all this despite the fact that, in the end, they were fitted to each other with perfect precision without any gaps (and their bond was not used no mortar). HOW all this could be done using only primitive tools?!
6. Theory of the origin of the pyramids and their age
Striking the imagination with its immensity and seeming improbability that people in such ancient times could build SUCH structures, the pyramids already in the mid-nineteenth century caused the emergence of new theories of their origin (different degrees of adequacy). So, some "pyramidology" quite seriously argue that this is not the work of human hands. The major theories are several:
Yeah... Easier to believe in a highly developed and technologically advanced aliens than in the fact that these giant things are built a half-naked ancient people... with regard to the age of the pyramids controversy is still going and for this reason. Officially they are 4.5 to 5 thousand years. But some scholars argue that the pyramid has traces of rain erosion, as heavy rains has not been in Egypt for about 10 (or even 12) thousands of years. That way you can come to the conclusion that the pyramid was built during the time of mammoths!
5. Energy is the essence of the pyramids
Again, some of the "pyramidology" claim that the pyramids were built for the reception and transformation of a cosmic energy (which that may be able to transform itself into universal Knowledge). They say, that the Egyptian priests possessed this Knowledge.
Other variations of this theory say that the pyramidal shape of these structures (the original large copy of the crystal) allows them to accumulate in your powerful positive energy that can affect the human mind and biological processes occurring in his body (literally on a cellular level!).
So the pyramids are not tombs, the pharaohs (quite the opposite!) reorganize, received fresh vitality, so to speak, conducted sessions of energoterm (and even cured cancer!).
4. The builders of the pyramids knew astronomy
In 1980-ies of the Belgian engineer and Amateur-Egyptologist Robert Beauval decided that, allegedly, three major pyramids of Giza are exactly in line with the three bright stars in the "belt" of the constellation Orion (and even the size of the pyramids coincide in relation to the sizes of these stars). And it's possible that somewhere under the sand hiding other pyramids, which are the other stars of Orion on the earth's projection (probably badly damaged). Why Orion? Because that's where, according to the beliefs of the ancient Egyptians, went the souls of the dead pharaohs.
Other scholars (actually pseudo-scientists) claim that the builders of the pyramids also had correct knowledge about the structure of our planet – for example, about the length of the equator on the approximate weight, length of the orbit of the Earth and of its rotation speed (or even the speed of light!). Supposedly, all of these numbers lies in the proportions of the pyramids. Are you serious guys...?
3. The builders of the pyramids used the "lever principle" and the number "PI"
According to one fairly common "sensational" theories, the ancient builders of the pyramids possessed by our modern mathematical knowledge, they skillfully used the "lever principle" and to the nearest one hundred-thousandth calculate the number "PI". Allegedly, moreover, that they were aware that the use of the lever allows to reduce several times the attached for lifting and movement of heavy effort, and the ratio of height and perimeter of the base of each pyramid is exactly equal to the ratio of the diameter of a circle described around the pyramid, to its same length (and because the walls of the pyramid rise at an angle of exactly 52 degrees).
Hmm... Actually, in every Soviet school children know that if you measure with a thread the circumference of a spherical object, but also its diameter, the ratio will get just a little more than 3 (that is, the most notorious of the number "PI"). Just like the number "PI" gives the perimeter of the base divided by twice the height of any object in pyramid shape. Well, where is the sensation?
2. The pyramids were not built by slaves
For a long time it was believed that the pyramids were built hundreds of thousands of slaves that barely fed, beaten with whips and, naturally, in large quantities were buried somewhere nearby. But mass graves are still not discovered. But archaeologists have found several settlements of the builders, where there were dormitories, dining halls, bakery and even a brewery.
We conclude that the pyramids were built by free people who might even get paid for it (maybe in the form of products). According to one theory, due to the climate of Egypt, where agriculture is only a few months (after the flooding of the Nile), the rest of the population barely able to feed themselves.
Therefore, with the purpose to take the population (primarily male), to give him money and to prevent possible riots, the pharaohs and attracted him to the construction of the pyramids. But in periods of agricultural work to construction sites may have driven slaves.
1. Legends about the curse of the pyramids
With the Egyptian pyramids linked to many terrible legends, the main essence of which is that any who will encroach on the treasures of the pharaohs, will die in terrible agony. The most terrible curse is credited with the tomb of innocent young Tutankhamun, saying that after it was opened in 1922 by command of Lord George Carnarvon, for 8 years, its core members (as well as many of those who touched the mummy of Pharaoh, or objects from his tomb) died in different mysterious circumstances.
But if you pay attention to the facts, no sensation will not work: first, the age of many "suddenly-dead" people were, at the time, pretty solid; second, the climate of Egypt is not very favorable for the people of Europe; do not contribute to the longevity and occurs in North Africa, political events.
If anything, Egypt was a long time ago to depopulate, as the ancient tomb and sanctuary here has long been robbed just lazy. In fact, a good half of Cairo is built of stone quarried from the pyramids.