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10 civilizations that disappeared forever

 

Thanks to the archaeologists and other scientists we know a lot about how developed our civilization. We can trace its history from the most ancient times until recent centuries, when all events were documented.

But there is a civilization that also developed, possessed unique knowledge, but gradually disappeared from the face of the Earth, although it left its mark in culture.

10. The Khmer Empire of Angkor


It is called Angarsky Kingdom. This state, whose centre was the city of Agar. Still there are ruins of temples and buildings, once constructed by the Khmers. It existed from IX to XIII century.

Many Khmer tribes inhabiting Indochina, United around Angkor. This town is situated in a good place, protected from enemies and favorable for the development of agriculture.

The official founder of the dynasty was Jayavarman II. The heyday of this state occurred in the XI—XII century. Ordinary people spoke in Khmer, and the government and people of culture prefer Sanskrit. The most honourable citizens were Brahmins, at the very bottom of the hierarchy were the servants and slaves.

From the middle of XII century the Khmer Empire began to decline because was exhausted by constant wars and large-scale construction. To the XIV century it ceased to exist.

9. Harappan civilization in India


This ancient civilization developed in the Indus valley from 3300 and 1300 BC During the heyday there were about 5 million people. Harappa has made significant progress in many directions. They are in special furnaces were bronze, lead, etc., processed ivory, gold, and shell.

There is evidence that from early times people of the Harappan civilization had its own dentists. They had their own written languages, preserved sculptures, vessels and other works of art, amazing anatomical accuracy.

Around 1900 began to appear signs of dawn, and by 1700 most of the cities of this civilization were abandoned.

8. The civilization of Easter island


Archaeologists were able to establish that on Easter island or in another way, on Rapa Nui, the first people appeared in the year 1200 ad came the first settlers is still unknown, but there are several hypotheses.

When the first Rapa Nui people on the slopes of volcanoes grew bananas and bred gardens. They kept chickens, caught fish, of which there were many along the rocky shores of the island, hunting for turtle.

Once there were several tribes that lived in large huts. Sometimes they fought, after which the winners would eat the meat of defeated. On long island there was cannibalism.

In the XVIII century the Europeans landed. By this time the civilization of Rapa Nui was gone. There are several hypotheses explaining this. The most widespread is deforestation, where an island once rich in vegetation, remained without trees. This has disturbed the environment and affected the lives of the local population, it began to deteriorate, and then completely disappeared due to the constant hostility and cannibalism.

7. The Axumite Kingdom in Ethiopia


This state existed in II-XI centuries. This is the first civilization that emerged on the territory of Ethiopia. It stretches where were the major trade routes from Egypt and other countries to India and China.

The local population is actively Cycling trade, selling gold, ivory, animal skins and slaves. Local kings conquered neighboring States, expanding the territory of the country.

In 333, the year the state religion of Axum was converted to Christianity. Since the VIII century began the decline, and in the XI century it disappeared. Ethiopian Jews have overwhelmed him, had destroyed all the rulers.

6. Civilization of the Hittites


The Hittites created a powerful ancient state on the territory of Asia Minor, which was called Hittite Kingdom. It was made at the confederal principle, i.e. the rulers did not encroach on the sovereignty of the occupied countries, were left in power of their kings. They could pass it on to their heirs.

Vassals, proved their loyalty, were able to participate in the management of the Hittite Kingdom. The society was very tolerant. Here was not the death penalty. Those who committed crimes had to pay a fine.

Women had a high social status. They had their own infantry and the chariot as a weapon they used a small triangular bow.

Gradually the Hittite Kingdom began to weaken because of the constant wars and skirmishes within the state. In the XII century BC because of the strife in the country has a famine. The group of Mediterranean Nations finally destroyed the weakened Hittite Kingdom.

5. The Sumerian civilization


This is the first civilization on Earth, which appeared about 6 thousand years ago in Mesopotamia. This is a unique state, which already had their own writing. They used for writing icons. At first they were about a thousand characters, then this number was reduced to 600.

It is believed that writing is their invention, like the wheel, agricultural tool, Potter's wheel, and more. They left behind a huge number of works of art.

To our times has reached Sumerian literature. First of all, this "Epic of Gilgamesh", where narrated the Sumerian legends.

Historians and researchers believe that human history begins with Sumer, the cradle of civilization. In the middle of the II Millennium BC Sumer swallowed the Babylonian Empire, and it ceased to exist.

4. Civilization of Mesoamerica (Olmecs, Toltecs, Mayans, Aztecs, Incas)


Before America arrived the ships of Columbus, there were native American tribes and peoples who were at different levels of development. But in small areas of the New world, in Mesoamerica and the Andes, the Spaniards found an advanced civilization. First that occurred in this territory – the Olmecs, who in the beginning of the I Millennium BC was their ceremonial centers, pyramids of clay and stone monuments. About her not much is known.

From the Mesoamerican civilization had its own calendar where the whole year was divided into 4 seasons. They tracked and recorded events such as lunar or solar eclipses, moon phases, etc. they had their own writing, as well as the vigesimal numeral system. All civilizations of Mesoamerica disappeared after Spanish colonization of the Americas.

3. Civilization of the Etruscans


In the North-West of the Apennine Peninsula in the first Millennium BC there was an ancient civilization which had a strong influence on Roman culture. Many Roman customs were borrowed from the Etruscans: chariot races, Gladiator battles, funeral rites. They learned to build arches in buildings.

Etruscan doctors well versed in anatomy, caused admiration of the Romans. They had their own theater, they loved fighting competitions.

In the V century BC Etruscan state fought with Rome, and the victory was for the Romans. The part that still retained the independence, took the side of the opponent to fight the Gallic tribes and other enemies. Gradually, the two civilizations together, entruste adopt the lifestyle of the Romans, and the history of the state ended.

2. The Minoan civilization


It got its name after the mythical king Minos. This civilization developed on the island of Crete from 2700 по1400 BC

The residents of this state engaged in Maritime trade, and sometimes piracy. They had friendly relations with Ancient Egypt. They were able to melt bronze, made pottery.

The Minoans built multi-storey houses (5 floors), as well as a unique Palace complexes. They had a water supply and Sewerage.

1. Mycenaean civilization


This late period of the Minoan civilization. In Greece the XVI–XI centuries BC existed the Mycenaean civilization, the center of which was the city of Mycenae.

The people of this state lived by the conquest of new lands and domination over the local population.

The top of society were the military nobility which led isolated life. Here highly valued horses and chariots. The disappearance of this culture was due to the Dorian invasion.

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